BILBO : Automatic reference labeling

BILBO is an open source software for automatic annotation of bibliographic reference.

It provides the segmentation and tagging of input string. It is principally based on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs), machine learning technique to segment and label sequence data.

As external softwares, Wapiti is used for CRF learning and inference and SVMlight is used for sequence classification.


  • Patrice Bellot (LSIS, Aix-Marseille University)
  • Young-Min Kim (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI))
  • Jade Tavernier
  • Arnaud Cordier (Cléo, Aix-Marseille University)
  • Anaïs Ollagnier (LSIS, Aix-Marseille University)


BILBO is released under the terms of the GPL version 2.



Young-Min Kim, Patrice Bellot, Élodie Faath, and Marin Dacos. 2011. Automatic annotation of bibliographical reference in digital humanities books, articles and blogs. In Proceedings of the CIKM 2011 BooksOnline11 Work- shop , pages 41–4

Young-Min Kim, Patrice Bellot, Élodie Faath, and Marin Dacos. 2012. Automatic annotation of incomplete and scattered bibliographical references in digital humanities papers. In Proceedings of the COnfrence en Recherche d’Information et Applications (CORIA 2012).

Young-Min Kim, Patrice Bellot, Élodie Faath and Marin Dacos. Annotated Bibliographical Reference Corpora in Digital Humanities. Eighth international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2012), pp. 494 – 501.

Young-Min Kim, Patrice Bellot, Élodie Faath and Marin Dacos. Machine Learning for Automatic Annotation of References in DH scholarly papers. 16th international conference on Digital Humanities (DH 2012).

Young-Min Kim, Patrice Bellot, Jade Tavernier, Élodie Faath and Marin Dacos. Evaluation of BILBO Reference Parsing in Digital Humanities via a Comparison of Different Tools. 12th ACM Symposium on Document Engineering (DocEng 2012), pp 209 – 212.


Bilbo – Bibliographical Robot :

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