BILBO : Automatic reference labeling

BILBO is an open source software for automatic annotation of bibliographic reference.
It provides the segmentation and tagging of input string. It is principally based on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs), machine learning technique to segment and label sequence data.
As external softwares, Wapiti is used for CRF learning and inference and SVMlight is used for sequence classification.


  • Patrice Bellot (LSIS, Aix-Marseille University)
  • Young-Min Kim (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI))
  • Jade Tavernier
  • Arnaud Cordier (Cléo, Aix-Marseille University)
  • Anaïs Ollagnier (LSIS, Aix-Marseille University)


BILBO is released under the terms of the GPL version 2.



Suggestions, bug reports, forks and pull requests are appreciated.


If you want to cite Bilbo, you can use this paper:

Young-Min Kim, Patrice Bellot, Élodie Faath, and Marin Dacos. 2011. Automatic annotation of bibliographical reference in digital humanities books, articles and blogs. In Proceedings of the CIKM 2011 BooksOnline11 Workshop , pages 41 – 4

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